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Symbionts in Ciliates

Team leader: 
Giulio Petroni
Team members: 
Claudia Vannini
Vittorio Boscaro
Sergei I. Fokin
Franco Verni
Institute or University: 
Department of Biology, University of Pisa
via A. Volta 4
Research interests: 

Symbionts of Ciliates

bacterial symbionts, Rickettsia, Francisella


1. Schrallhammer M., Galati S., Altenbuchner J., Schweikert M., Görtz H.D., Petroni G. 2012. Tracing the role of R-bodies in the killer trait: Absence of toxicity of R-body producing recombinant E. coli on paramecia. Eur J Protistol. 48: 290-296.

2. Vannini C., Ferrantini F., Ristori A., Verni F., Petroni G. 2012. Betaproteobacterial symbionts of the ciliate Euplotes: origin and tangled evolutionary path of an obligate microbial association. Environ. Microbiol., 14(9): 2553-2563.

3. Hahn M.W., Scheuerl T., Jezberova J., Koll U., Jezbera J., Simek K., Vannini C., Petroni G., Wu Q.L. 2012. The Passive yet Successful Way of Planktonic Life: Genomic and Experimental Analysis of the Ecology of a Free-Living Polynucleobacter Population. PLoS ONE 7(3): e32772.

4. Pilhofer M., Ladinsky M.S., McDowall A.W., Petroni G., Jensen G.J. 2011. Microtubules in Bacteria: Ancient Tubulins Build a Five-Protofilament Homolog of the Eukaryotic Cytoskeleton. PLoS Biol. 9(12): e1001213.

5.  Schrallhammer M., Schweikert M., Vallesi M., Verni F., Petroni G*. 2011. Detection of a Novel Subspecies of Francisella noatunensis as Endosymbiont of the Ciliate Euplotes raikovi. Microb. Ecol. 61:455-464.

6. Vannini C., Ferrantini F., Schleifer K.-H., Ludwig W., Verni F., Petroni G. 2010. 'Candidatus Anadelfobacter veles' and 'Candidatus Cyrtobacter comes', two new Rickettsiales hosted by the protist ciliate Euplotes harpa (Ciliophora, Spirotrichea). Appl. Environm. Microbiol. 76: 4047-4054.

7. Ferrantini F., Fokin S. I., Modeo L., Andreoli I., Dini F., Görtz H.D., Verni F., Petroni G*. 2009. ‘Candidatus Cryptoprodotis polytropus’, a novel Rickettsia-like organism in the ciliated protist Pseudomicrothorax dubius (Ciliophora, Nassophorea). J. Eukaryot. Microbiol., 56:119-129.

8. Pilhofer M., Rappl K., Eckl C., Bauer A.P., Ludwig W., Schleifer K.H., Petroni G. 2008. Characterization and evolution of cell division and cell wall synthesis genes in the bacterial phyla Verrucomicrobia, Lentisphaerae, Chlamydiae and Planctomycetes and phylogenetic comparison with rRNA genes. J. Bacteriol., 190: 3192–3202

9. Pilhofer M., Bauer A.P., Schrallhammer M., Richter L., Ludwig W., Schleifer K.-H., Petroni G*. 2007. Characterization of bacterial operons consisting of two tubulins and a kinesin-like gene by the novel Two-Step Gene Walking method. Nuc. Acid Res., 35: e135

10. Pilhofer M., Rosati G., Ludwig W., Schleifer K.-H., Petroni G*. 2007. Coexistence of tubulins and ftsZ in different Prosthecobacter species. Mol. Biol. Evol., 24: 1439–1442.

11. Vannini C., Pöckl M., Petroni G., Wu Q.L., Lang E., Stackebrandt E., Schrallhammer M., Richardson P.M., Martin W. Hahn M.W. 2007. Endosymbiosis in statu nascendi: close phylogenetic relationship between obligately endosymbiotic and obligately free-living Polynucleobacter strains (Betaproteobacteria). Environ. Microbiol., 9: 347-359.

12. Schrallhammer M., Fokin S.I., Schleifer K.-H., Petroni G*. 2006. Molecular characterization of the obligate endosymbiont "Caedibacter macronucleorum" Fokin and Gortz, 1993 and of its host Paramecium duboscqui strain Ku4-8. J. Eukaryot. Microbiol., 53: 499-506.

13. Modeo L., Rosati G., Andreoli I., Gabrielli S.,Verni F., Petroni G*. 2006. Molecular systematics and ultrastructural characterization of a forgotten species: Chattonidium setense (Ciliophora, Heterotrichea). P. Jpn. Acad. B-Phys. 82: 359-374.

14. Fokin S.I., Andreoli I., Verni F., Petroni G*. 2006. Apofrontonia dohrni sp. n. and the phylogenetic relationships within Peniculia (Protista, Ciliophora, Oligohymenophorea). Zoologica Scripta, 35: 289-300.

15. Vannini C., Petroni G., Verni F., Rosati G. 2005. A bacterium belonging to the Rickettsiaceae family inhabits the cytoplasm of the marine ciliate Diophrys appendiculata (Ciliophora, Hypotrichia). Microb. Ecol., 49: 434-442.

16. Vannini C., Petroni G., Verni F., Rosati G. 2005. Polynucleobacter bacteria in a brakish Euplotes (Ciliata Hypotrichia) species with ten frontoventral cirri. J. Eukaryot. Microbiol., 52: 116-122.

17. Vannini C., Rosati G., Verni F., Petroni G*. 2004. Identification of the bacterial endosymbionts of the marine ciliate Euplotes magnicirratus (Ciliophora, Hypotrichia) and proposal of 'Candidatus Devosia euplotis'. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 54: 1151-1156.

18. Vannini C., Petroni G., Schena A., Verni F., Rosati G. 2003. Well-established mutualistic associations between ciliates and prokaryotes might be more widespread and diversified than so far supposed. European J. Protistology., 39: 412-415.

19. Jenkins C., Samudrala R., Anderson I., Hedlund B.P., Petroni G., Michailova N., Pinel N., Overbeek R., Rosati G., Staley J.T. 2002. Genes for the cytoskeletal protein tubulin in the bacterial genus Prosthecobacter. P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 99: 17049-17054.

20. Petroni G., Spring S., Schleifer K.-H., Verni F., Rosati G. 2000. Defensive extrusive ectosymbionts of Euplotidium (Cilophora) that contain microtuble-like structures are bacteria related to Verrucomicrobia. P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 97: 1813-1817.

21. Rosati G., Petroni G., Quochi S., Modeo L., Verni F. 1999. Epixenosomes, peculiar epibionts of the Hypotrich Ciliate Euplotidium itoi, defend their host against predators. J. Eukaryot. Microbiol., 46: 278-282.

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